Botulinum toxin type A injections are the most widely used aesthetic procedure, typically injected to enhance the patient’s facial appearance. Label indications include cosmetic procedures (glabella, frontalis, crow’s feet), spasticity, strabismus, headache, incontinence, and hyperhidrosis. Off-label indications include other cosmetic anatomy, depression, acne and rosacea, pain, and well-being.
Understanding the underlying science is essential to optimizing patient outcomes. Key considerations are efficacy, timing of onset, and duration of effect, all of which hinge upon the agent’s toxin/receptor relationship. Clinicians can also tailor the dosage and distribution of injections sites to improve results. Enhancing the individual patient’s appearance can significantly impact psychological well-being and interpersonal relationships in romantic, social, and professional spheres.
Presenter disclosure(s): The presenter has reported relationships with the following companies: Aclaris Therapeutics Inc. Actavis Aerolase Allergan, Inc. Almirall Bayer HealthCare Bioderma Biofrontera AG BirchBioMed Brickell Biotech, Inc. Castle Biosciences, Inc. Celgene Corporation Clarisonic Croma-Pharma GmbH Austria Demira DUSA Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Encore Dermatology, Inc. Essence Novel Evolus, Inc. Exeltis Ferndale Laboratories, Inc. Gage Development Company, LLC IntraDerm Pharmaceuticals ISDIN Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Leo Pharma Inc. MC2 Therapeutics Sensus Healthcare Sinclair Pharma SiSaf, Ltd. Sonoma Pharmaceuticals Stratapharma Strathspey Crown Therapeutics Inc. ThermiAesthetics Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Written by: Daniel Bennett, MPH
Reviewed by: Martina Lambertini, MD